Other Noninvasive Measures

Ankle-Arm Indices

The ankle-arm index (AAI) is a standard noninvasive measure used in research that correlates with CVD events, CVD mortality and overall mortality in many populations. Systolic blood pressures are obtained in the arms and at the ankles bilaterally. The formula is: ankle systolic pressure/arm systolic pressure= AAI. The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) acknowledged PAD as a coronary risk disease (CHD) equivalent and recommended testing to diagnose PAD early in the clinical field. The AAI is the accepted test for identifying PAD and is recommended by the NCEP, AHA, ADA and The National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI).


A noninvasive monitor that captures the participant’s heart rate, respiratory activity and blood pressure for 15 minutes during several physiologic challenges. This monitor evaluates the participant’s sympathetic and parasympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system

The URL provides training and certification for organizations that wish to implement the AAI testing for patient care, research or public health screening. For information contact Emma Barinas-Mitchell